By Charles W. Kreidler
This is often the textbook i've got selected for the English phonetics path I educate. The booklet covers the entire features of English phonetics and phonology in a simple to keep on with variety. an enticing function of this ebook is Kreidles's method of alterations throughout dialects of English as viariations at the related subject matter. The e-book discusses all the facets of English phonology: segments (consonants and vowels), syllables, phonological methods (assimilation, elision, vulnerable kinds, etc), be aware tension, word pressure and intonation. A precis and a dialogue are came upon on the finish of every bankruptcy. There also are a number of routines with key in the e-book which makes it compatible for self-study.
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Extra resources for Describing Spoken English: An Introduction (Routledge Grammar)
On the other hand, Portuguese has two different phonemes /a/ and /ã/, and French has two phonemes /a/ and /ã/. A phoneme, then, is an abstract unit that has more than one pronunciation—more than one realization in speech. In fact, it is easy to learn to recognize a number of realizations for almost any phoneme. The words deem and doom have the same initial phoneme, /d/, but in the first word that phoneme is articulated with the lips spread and in the second word with the lips rounded. The same is true, of course, for the phoneme /t/ in team and tomb and for the phoneme /n/ in niece and noose.
When we say that speakers of a language know the phonology of their language, we mean that they can accurately produce the sequences of sounds that signal different meanings and that they can 37 THE STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE recognize the sequences of sounds produced by other speakers and can connect these sequences to the meanings intended by those speakers. But ordinary speakers do not ‘know’ in the sense that they can describe the complex manipulations of their vocal organs in pronouncing. Any native speaker of English can pronounce and recognize beat, bit, meat, and meek, but the ability to explain how bit differs from beat, and beat from meat and meat from meek, is not part of native-speaker knowledge.
Initially the phoneme is a socalled ‘clear’ /l/; the front of the tongue is high, with the tip touching the alveolar ridge; the back of the tongue is down; and the sides are drawn in so that air escapes around the tongue. (As noted on pp. ) In final positions, at least for many speakers, /l/ is ‘dark,’ [ ]; the dorsum is high in the back of the mouth, the center is low, the front may be raised or not, and the tongue sides are drawn in. These two allophones, clear and dark, sound quite different, but they are not different because of the influence of following or preceding phonemes.
Describing Spoken English: An Introduction (Routledge Grammar) by Charles W. Kreidler