By Lidewij Welmoed Niezink.
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Extra info for Considering others in need on altruism, empathy and perspective taking
1A is that the choice for a two factor solution might not have been the most optimal choice because in many studies more than two factors were found. Nevertheless, most studies provide clear support for the claim that empathy and personal distress are two different latent variables. That is, in all studies, two factors were found that represented these two variables. Batson and colleagues (1978, 1987) compared a one component factor solution with a two component factor solution, with the aim of separating empathy from distress.
Only twenty of these studies examined the factorial structure of the adjectives used and applied one of the the four research paradigms described above2. Table 1 provides a schematic overview of these studies and their factor analytical reports. All studies used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation. PCA is an exploratory factor analytic technique. This implies that decisions have to be made about the number of factors to extract, the type of rotation to use, the criteria for acceptable loadings of items on a factor, and the labeling of the factors.
Within a clinical context, empathy was initially viewed as a cognitive process referring to accurately and dispassionately understanding the client’s point of view concerning his or her situation (Dymond, 1949). 29) referred to empathy as the focus of the therapist to try to “live the attitudes of the other”. Eventually, definitions of empathy, and with it the empathy measures, shifted from cognition-based to emotion-based (Stotland, 1969; Mehrabian & Epstein, 1972; Coke et al. 1978; Hoffman 1987).
Considering others in need on altruism, empathy and perspective taking by Lidewij Welmoed Niezink.