By A. M. Muir Wood
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Extra resources for Coastal Hydraulics
This has been partly related to the formation of capillary waves (and hence the minimum wind velocity quoted in point (i), and, partly, particularly for strong winds, to the existence of air turbulence causing gusts to travel along the water surface. Once wave crests have begun to form, the energy transfer from the wind is partly responsible for increased wave celerity-and hence increased wave length-and partly for increased wave height. The energy is believed to be transferred partly by pressure variation at the surface which leads, on account of viscosity of the air, to maximum and minimum air pressures slightly down-wind of wave trough and crest respectively and, hence, promotes a forced oscillation of the surface.
It is not possible to derive a comprehensive set of empirical formulae based directly on model tests, on account of the differential scale effects of the several parameters. Development of existing knowledge is therefore largely a matter of collecting data of winds and waves at sea and comparing the actual wave characteristics with those deduced by hindcasting from the knowledge of the winds, thus allowing empirical constants to be attributed to the theoretical equations. This process is attended by a number of 1.
Symposia, ll (Jan. 1966), pp. 15-25. 16. LSBURY, G. , Tidal hydraulics. Corps of Engrs. S. Army (May 1956). 17. CARTWRIGHT, D. E. , A comparison of the geodetic reference levels of England and France by means of the Sea Surface, Proc. Roy. Soc. Series A, 273 (1963), pp. 558-580. 18. BoWDEN, K. , The flow of water through the Straits of Dover related to wind and differences in sea level, Trans. Roy. , Series A, No. 953, 248 (1956), pp. 517-551. 19. RossiTER, J. R. and LENNON, G. , Computation of tidal conditions in the Thames Estuary by the initial value method, Proc.
Coastal Hydraulics by A. M. Muir Wood