By Susan van Duyne, Don C. Van Dyke, David J. Lang, M. Joan Soucek, Frances Heide
The administration of and attitudes towards youngsters and adults with Down syndrome have gone through huge alterations during the condi tion's lengthy heritage (Zellweger, 1977, 1981, Zellweger & Patil, 1987). J. E. D. Esquirol (1838) and E. Seguin (1846) have been most likely the 1st physicians to witness the situation with out utilizing at the moment approved diagnostic designa tions. Seguin coined the phrases furfuraceus or lowland cretinism in contradis tinction to the goiterous cretinism endemic at the moment within the Swiss Alps. Esquirol, in addition to Seguin, had a favorable angle towards folks who have been mentally sick or mentally subnormal. Esquirol pioneered a extra humane therapy in psychological associations and Seguin created the 1st houses in France, and later within the usa, geared toward instructing individuals who have been mentally subnormal. The time period mongolian idiocy used to be coined via J. H. L. Down in England (1866). The time period is deceptive in different respects: (1) Down pointed out the epicanthic folds obvious in lots of youngsters with Down syndrome with the extra dermis fold within the top lid taking place fairly in humans of Oriental (Mongolian) descent; and (2) Down additionally erred by way of assuming that Down syndrome represented regression to an ethnic version of reduce cultural status. Such an interpretation could have been comprehensible at a time whilst the parable of Anglo-Saxon superiority was once greatly accredited by means of the British. Charles Darwin's then hugely acclaimed conception of beginning of the species can have contributed to this kind of concept.
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Extra resources for Clinical Perspectives in the Management of Down Syndrome
1965). Occular mobility testing was performed by standard cover testing with accommodation controlled by age-appropriate distant and near fixation targets or toys. Eyelid examination was accomplished by direct inspection and slit lamp examination; Marginal blepharitis was diagnosed by either technique when characteristic scaling and inflammation of the eyelid margins were present. Anterior segment evaluation was carried out by using a standard fixed slit lamp biomicroscope or a hand-held slit lamp microscope.
Clinical Pediatrics, 18(2), 116-118. W. (1979). Ossicular abnormalities in Down's syndrome. Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, 87, 372-384. c. (1972). Hearing loss and middle ear disorders in patients with Down's syndrome (Mongolism). Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 16,21. P. (1986). Hearing and otologic disorders in children with Down' syndrome. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 90, 636-642. P. (1977). The expanding imperatus of early identification. H. ), New York: Grune & Stratton.
These two groups were alike in that all patients were referred to the author for ophthalmologic screening. Other patients with Down syndrome referred to the author for treatment of specific ophthalmologic disorders were excluded from this study to avoid the creation of statistical bias. Methods All patients were examined and treated by the author. The study was prospective only in the sense that the intent to study the group was present prior to examining them, and a standardized examination was performed on all patients.
Clinical Perspectives in the Management of Down Syndrome by Susan van Duyne, Don C. Van Dyke, David J. Lang, M. Joan Soucek, Frances Heide