By Steven Dymarkowski MD, PhD, Hilde Bosmans PhD (auth.), Jan Bogaert MD, PhD, Steven Dymarkowski MD, PhD, Andrew M. Taylor MD, MRCP, FRCR (eds.)
MRI has develop into the popular noninvasive imaging modality for the center and nice vessels. The immense technological growth accomplished lately has supplied the consumer with state-of-the-art MRI structures, yet their optimum use should be constrained by means of constrained expertise of the aptitude sufferer gain and the need for instructing. This greatly illustrated quantity, has been particularly compiled to satisfy those wishes. crucial theoretical heritage info is equipped, and imaging acquisition and power pitfalls are thought of intimately. most significantly, dependent directions are supplied at the interpretation of medical info within the wide variety of cardiac pathology that may be encountered. all through, the emphasis is at the implementation of cardiac MRI in scientific practice.
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Additional info for Clinical Cardiac MRI: With Interactive CD-ROM
Because the TI in these sequences is used for myocardial suppression, additional fat suppression is achieved with another technique, namely spectral fat-suppression (Fig. 24; Bornert et al. 2002). Both 2D and 3D sequences for CE-IR MRI exist. The definite advantage of 3D sequences is the ability to cover the entire ventricle in a single breath-hold period. Nevertheless, to achieve a 3D acquisition in a single breath-hold, the echo train length has to be quite long, which can lead to motion blurring in patients with higher heart rates (Kuhl et al.
This RF excitation pulse suppresses specific parts of the myocardium by nulling the magnetization. The so-called tagged tissue will produce markedly decreased signal intensity during a certain period after the application of the saturation pulse. In a multiphase acquisition, the position of this tag can be traced. Different types of tagged sequences have been developed. The first uses normal saturation pulses, applying one RF pulse per tagging line (Fig. 27). Tagging in the short-axis plane is then performed with a series of radial tagging lines through the center of the myocardium.
Bosmans to suppress the artifacts from the cavity but also to better delineate the myocardium (Greenman et al. 2003). A third IR pulse may be added to null the signal from fat to produce a triple IR sequence. Disadvantages of these pulses are that slowly flowing blood near the myocardium can be incompletely suppressed and may appear hyperintense. Furthermore, parts of the myocardium can be partially suppressed, which would result in hypointense regions. 5 Contrast-Enhanced Inversion-Recovery MRI of the Myocardium Several studies have shown that myocardial infarction tissue can be best imaged after injection of paramagnetic contrast agents using GE acquisitions with a 180º IR prepulse, called contrastenhanced inversion recovery MRI (CE-IR MRI; Fig.
Clinical Cardiac MRI: With Interactive CD-ROM by Steven Dymarkowski MD, PhD, Hilde Bosmans PhD (auth.), Jan Bogaert MD, PhD, Steven Dymarkowski MD, PhD, Andrew M. Taylor MD, MRCP, FRCR (eds.)