By Pamela M. Lee
Within the Sixties paintings fell out of time; either artists and critics misplaced their temporal bearings according to what E. M. Cioran known as “not being entitled to time.” This anxiousness and uneasiness approximately time, which Pamela Lee calls “chronophobia,” reduce throughout pursuits, media, and genres, and was once figured in works starting from kinetic sculptures to Andy Warhol motion pictures. regardless of its pervasiveness, the topic of time and Sixties artwork has long past mostly unexamined in old debts of the interval. Chronophobia is the 1st severe try to outline this obsession and study it when it comes to paintings and technology.
Lee discusses the chronophobia of artwork relative to the emergence of the knowledge Age in postwar tradition. The accompanying fast technological changes, together with the arrival of pcs and automation methods, produced for plenty of an acute feel of ancient unknowing; the probably speeded up speed of lifestyles started to outstrip any makes an attempt to make feel of the current. Lee sees the angle of Sixties artwork to time as a historic prelude to our present fixation on time and pace inside of electronic tradition. Reflecting upon the Nineteen Sixties cultural anxiousness approximately temporality, she argues, is helping us historicize our present relation to expertise and time.
After an introductory framing of phrases, Lee discusses such themes as “presentness” with appreciate to the curiosity in platforms idea in Nineteen Sixties artwork; kinetic sculpture and new different types of international media; the temporality of the physique and the spatialization of the visible snapshot within the work of Bridget Riley and the functionality paintings of Carolee Schneemann; Robert Smithson’s curiosity in seriality and futurity, thought of in gentle of his studying of George Kubler’s very important paintings the form of Time: feedback at the heritage of items and Norbert Wiener’s dialogue of cybernetics; and the unending belaboring of the current in sixties paintings, as visible in Warhol’s Empire and the paintings of On Kawara.
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Additional info for Chronophobia: On Time in the Art of the 1960s
7. Courtesy Lockheed Martin. proudly states its “success” in this endeavor. S. ” For that comment stops just short of a guilty confession, and its culpability, we shall see, reduces to the profoundly ambivalent status of technology in the 1960s. It is as if the management of RAND, deadly aware of its role in international politics, pressed art into the service of a public relations coup, as if to render its technology happy and user friendly. Art, in other words, might be exploited to soften the hardboiled, militaristic reputation of such corporations in the public sphere, which is not to say that artists were innocent of such charges themselves.
Art and technology rarely works, I think, and it has to do with the element of time, the surprise situation when timing becomes absolutely the most important thing. —Maurice Tuchman64 Time is political. Like technology, it is not neutral. “The metaphysics of capital is a technology of time,” Jean-François Lyotard once observed, an enormously resonant phrase in the context of the 1960s. It was then—with Apollo 11, with Vietnam, with the historical emergence of what has come to be known as the Information Age—that the contest for time assumed a decidedly technological aspect.
In charting the consistency as well as diversity of such efforts, this book restitutes the question of time to the history of sixties art. 1 This book understands the chronophobic tendency in much of that decade’s work as the projection of a liminal historical moment, for which there was no clear perspective on the social and technological horizon yet to come. Time, in other words, becomes a ﬁguration of uncertainty about the mechanics of historical change itself. Before we can begin to address this question, we need turn to the more standard accounts of art and technology in the sixties.
Chronophobia: On Time in the Art of the 1960s by Pamela M. Lee