By Robert Wiszniowski
Utilizing varied views and numerous methods, this selection of diagnostic texts goals at providing the entire attainable faces of the modern countryside. in response to political technological know-how technique, this quantity is dedicated to either concept and perform. The constitution of the e-book is unconventional. the problems awarded are tremendous contextual, topic to an ongoing dialogue and normally unpredictable. From the clinical viewpoint, the territorial differentiation within the conventional uniform of the countryside is just reconfigured and reshaped as a result of the new common sense of inner industry pageant.
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Additional info for Challenges to Representative Democracy: A European Perspective
5 years, personalistic regimes: 15 years, and single-party regimes – 24 years. Geddes concluded that the above resulted from a relatively weak identification of the military institutions with civilian institutions. In other words, the esprit d’corps of the army was stronger than the supremacy of the raison d’état. Consequently, ruling classes or elites in military regimes, unlike their counterparts in other types of authoritarian regimes, are to less extent driven by the fear of being overthrown (Geddes 1999, 2004).
The state was a social entity, often existing in certain national conditions and resulting from social contract. St. Thomas took a stance that the idea of the state comes from God but the way it functions depends on people and the conditions of their agreement. The importance of the agreement was stressed by Averroes. Its positive social side was visible in the views of Dante Alighieri and Marsilius of Padua who generally rejected God’s contribution to the origins of the state (Świeżawski 2002, chap.
The Florentine, as we said before, did not advocate egalitarian state, although he accepted an option of an elitist one, on condition that it developed in a so-called natural way. 374-375). The advocate of national republic perceived the nation similarly to Marsilius, dividing it into ethnia stemming from cultural community encompassing the whole society and the political nation but in a broader sense than in the times of classical Middle Ages, because including middle classes – townspeople and intelligentsia.
Challenges to Representative Democracy: A European Perspective by Robert Wiszniowski