By G. M. Howe (auth.), Dr. Peter Boyle, Dr. Calum S. Muir, Prof. Dr. Ekkehard Grundmann (eds.)
The previous decade has visible the construction of many melanoma at lases. As with different thoughts of descriptive epidemiology, those atlases have proved worthy in settling on components for extra re sear~h making use of the equipment of analytical epidemiology. How ever, some of the melanoma atlases produceq so far have did not professional vide a typical structure of presentation, which has constrained their comparison and annoyed in a wide degree any try to examine hazards throughout nationwide limitations, limitations which when it comes to environmental exposures can have little that means. during this quantity, many positive factors of melanoma atlases are provided and there are discussions at the components the place strikes in the direction of standardization may possibly vastly elevate the application of the completed product. not like topographic maps, i. e., representations of average and man-made good points at the floor of the earth, thematic maps be aware of exhibiting the geographical incidence and varia tion of a unmarried phenomenon - the "theme" of the map. The hyperlink among thematic and base mapping is quite powerful because the themat ic info to be depicted is of higher worth if displayed on a correct base map. extra, the thematic map quite often makes use of statis tical information that are usually relating to inner administrative obstacles for enumeration. the main explanation for developing a thematic map is to find the spatial constitution of the subject of the map and to then relate the constitution to a couple features of the lower than mendacity environment.
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1. 8 -""'" ~ SMR~ _D __ \0 W 0. ,n> 40 J. Griiger and T. Schafer References Breslow NE, Day NE (1975) Indirect standardization and multiplicative models for rates. J Chronic Dis 29: 289-303 Breslow NE, Day NE (1986) Statistical methods in cancer research, vol II - The design and analysis of cohort studies. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, (lARC scientific publications no 82) Day NE (1976) A new measure for age standardized incidence, the cumulative rate. In: Waterhouse, Muir, Correa, Powell (eds) Cancer incidence in five continents, vol III.
Lee (1987) estimated that if a similar proportion of incidental cancer had existed in all Singapore Chinese who had died of other causes during the same period, the number of colorectal cancers could increase by as much as 45% in the age group 60 years and above. Comparable findings have been reported in other countries. 4% of Hawaiian Japanese aged above 70 years (Stemmerman 1966), in 2% of individuals above the age of 70 years at the Los Angeles County Hospital (Berg et al. 7% of individuals over the age of 65 years in Liverpool (Williams et al.
As a scientific map is a tool for further analysis, it should be constructed in the most objective way possible. The map is the base for research in furthering the explanation of spatial inequalities (of high- and low-risk areas) and in establishing correlations with environmental factors. The diffusion of the map and use by a larger public is a further problem which requires adapted techniques. Summary Some problems are general to disease mapping; others are specific to the cartography of cancer.
Cancer Mapping by G. M. Howe (auth.), Dr. Peter Boyle, Dr. Calum S. Muir, Prof. Dr. Ekkehard Grundmann (eds.)