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By L Hamill

ISBN-10: 0203028414

ISBN-13: 9780203028414

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8). An old ox-bow can be seen on the left. (Reproduced by permission of Devon Library Service) construct and maintain, so the aim should be to minimise such works by using any natural rock outcrops or other permanent controls, locating the crossing at a node that forms the crossover point in a sinusoidal meander, or possibly constructing the crossing at a bend if this is the only relatively stable feature. 0 times the average depth and less likely to shift (Neill, 1973; Farraday and Charlton, 1983).

2b. Eddies may form in the separation zone, especially when the opening has a small span relative to the width of the river. The size of the zone depends upon the upstream channel characteristics and the geometry of the constriction. An important point is that the water level in the separation zone is higher than that in the region of drawdown, so the water level at the edge of the floodplain may be significantly higher than at Page 38 the centre of the channel. This transverse hydraulic gradient is needed to drive water off the floodplain and through the opening, especially where there are wide, rough floodplains.

After Neill, 1973. Reproduced by permission of University of Toronto Press) the original dimensions may require modification, which affects the afflux. However, at some point an acceptable waterway should be obtained. The process is quicker if any bridge piers have been included, otherwise they may have to be added during the next stage and some of the calculations repeated. Once the size of the bridge openings is known, the design should be reviewed. Have all of the factors listed earlier been considered?

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Bridge hydraulics by L Hamill

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