By Evan S. Lieberman
Why have governments replied to the HIV/AIDS pandemic in such alternative ways? in past times zone century, overseas firms and donors have disseminated monstrous assets and a suite of top perform options to policymakers worldwide. but the governments of constructing nations in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Latin the USA, and the Caribbean proceed to enforce extensively various regulations. obstacles of Contagion is the 1st systematic, comparative research of the politics of HIV/AIDS. The ebook explores the political demanding situations of responding to a stigmatized , and identifies ethnic boundaries--the formal and casual associations that divide societies--as a primary effect on politics and policymaking. Evan Lieberman examines the ways that chance and social pageant get mapped onto well-institutionalized styles of ethnic politics. the place robust ethnic obstacles fragment societies into teams, the politics of AIDS usually tend to contain blame and shame-avoidance strategies opposed to segments of the inhabitants. In flip, executive leaders of such nations reply some distance much less aggressively to the epidemic. Lieberman's case experiences of Brazil, South Africa, and India--three constructing nations that face major AIDS epidemics--are complemented via statistical analyses of the coverage responses of Indian states and over seventy constructing international locations. The reports finish that various styles of ethnic festival form how governments reply to this devastating challenge. the writer considers the consequences for governments and donors, and the expanding tendency to spot social difficulties in ethnic phrases.
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Extra info for Boundaries of Contagion: How Ethnic Politics Have Shaped Government Responses to AIDS
Blaming and shaming dynamic: "It's 'not our' problem" and/or "It's 'their' problem"; Proposed policies may be viewed as unnecessary and/or conspiratorial. Ultimately, conflict and dampened demand create disincentives for the provision of resources for policy ences between them, increasing cooperation among groups. In interpreting rhe risks and status implications of a largely hidden viral infection that affects a minority of the population, I predict a linear relationship. So long as the boundaries separating groups are strong, increased ethnic fragmentation is likely to multiply the effect of boundaries.
Strong ethnic boundaries, particularly when they fragment society into multiple groups, help structure elite and more general resistance to HIVI AIDS policies even when increasing levels of AIDS-related mortality and morbidity and external pressures from the international community (the latter are discussed in detail in the next chapter) provide greater incentives to accept such sacrifices. Governments that attempt to act on HIVI AIDS in the context of strong and multiple ethnic boundaries may inspire ethnically based political conflicts.
This understanding of human motivation has gained currency among social scientists, and even economists have relaxed the standard as- sumption that individuals maximize their utility and highlighted the reflexive nature of preferences and their basis in one's identity relative to others. 42 Under conditions of competition between groups, they are likely to interpret risks, costs, and benefits so as to increase their esteem relative to other groups. Group lead- ers attempt to avoid shame and to assign blame 43 ro other groups.
Boundaries of Contagion: How Ethnic Politics Have Shaped Government Responses to AIDS by Evan S. Lieberman