By Marc Bekoff
Why do animals play? Play has been defined in animals as varied as reptiles, birds and mammals, so what merits does it offer and the way did it evolve? cautious, quantitative reports of social, locomotor and item play habit are actually starting to solution those questions and make clear many different features of either animal and human habit. This exact interdisciplinary quantity brings jointly the foremost findings approximately play in quite a lot of species together with people. issues approximately play contain the evolutionary heritage of play, play constitution, functionality and improvement, and intercourse and person adjustments. Animal Play is destined to turn into the benchmark quantity during this topic for a few years to come back, and may offer a resource of notion and figuring out for college students and researchers in behavioral biology, neurobiology, psychology and anthropology.
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Additional info for Animal Play: Evolutionary, Comparative and Ecological Perspectives
Mitchell, N. S. Thompson, & H. L. Miles), pp. 254^276. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. Burghardt, G. M. 1998. Play. In Comparative Psychology: A Handbook, (ed. Greenberg, G. ), pp. 757-67. New York: Garland. Burghardt, G. , & Rosscoe, R. 1996. Problem of Reptile play: Environmental enrichment and play behavior in a captive Nile soft-shelled turtle. Zoo Biology, 15, 223-38. Butler, A. B. & Hodos, W. 1996. Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy: Evolution and Adaptation. New York: Wiley-Liss. Byers, J. A. & Walker, C.
Perhaps juvenile females are role-playing; performing male typical routines may help them in courtship and mate choice when they are adults. This seems rather improbable, perhaps, but at this stage of our ignorance all possibilities should be brought out. Although the motor performance of the titillation display is adult-like when first observed, the orientation and movements associated with this behavior may need to be practiced. The fact that juveniles titillated animals on the substrate rather than while swimming suggests that they may need to perfect performing the behavior while actively negotiating and maintaining contact with a swimming animal.
Our choice of what behaviors to include in this review of raven play is therefore necessarily subjective. The behaviors we choose here are those that strike us as obviously 'playful', and we believe that most observers would also immediately recognize them as play, even if reasons for doing so might be obscure. Nonetheless, we hope that readers will be left with some sense of raven play that will be useful for comparisons with other species. We discuss possible functions of each different type of play behavior in terms of 'serious'/adult raven ecology and behavior.
Animal Play: Evolutionary, Comparative and Ecological Perspectives by Marc Bekoff