By April McMahon
This can be a brief, vigorous, and available creation to the sounds of contemporary English. Its emphasis on version, with examples from British, American, New Zealand, and Singaporean English, make it appropriate for either local and non-native audio system. McMahon specializes in the vowels and consonants, but in addition discusses syllables, tension, and the phonology of phrases and words. She introduces new instruments and terminology progressively, and discusses the inducement for key concepts.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to English Phonology
If you put your ﬁngers on your ‘Adam’s apple’ or ‘voicebox’ (technically the larynx), and produce a very long [zzzzzzz], you should feel vibration; this shows that [z] is a voiced sound. On the other hand, if you make a very long [sssssss], you will not feel the same sort of activity: [s] is a voiceless sound. Pulmonic egressive air ﬂows through the trachea, or windpipe, and up into the larynx, which is like a mobile little box suspended at the top of the trachea, acting to control the airway to and from the lungs, with the epiglottis above it protecting the lungs by stopping foreign bodies like food from dropping in.
It is possible to produce speech using a pulmonic ingressive airstream. No language seems to use this airstream regularly for particular sounds, although it has been reported in various cultures as a means of voice disguise: if you try to breathe in and speak at the same time, you will ﬁnd that the pitch of your voice raises signiﬁcantly. There are two other airstreams which may be involved in speech, although even in languages where these are used, they will characterise only a few sounds, interpolated in a stream of pulmonic egressive speech.
This is the voiced retroﬂex approximant, [ɹ], which is produced with the tip of the tongue curled back slightly behind the alveolar ridge; this is the most common realisation of /r/ for speakers of Southern Standard British English and General American. E . POSTALVEOLAR If you move your tongue tip back behind the alveolar ridge, you will feel the hard palate, which then, moving further back again, becomes the soft palate, or velum. Postalveolar sounds are produced with the blade of the tongue as the active articulator, and the adjoining parts of the alveolar ridge and the hard palate as the passive one.
An Introduction to English Phonology by April McMahon