By R. Jankowski
Members have little incentive to vote, gather political details or give a contribution crusade cash, simply because their vote has little or no probability of affecting the end result of an election. Jankowski bargains a proof and facts for political participation in keeping with the truth that most people are weakly altruistic.
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Additional info for Altruism and Self-Interest in Democracies: Individual Participation in Government
There is evidence that this worry is important to a large number of Americans. This does not mean that they do not support charity programs, but rather, that charity programs are excessive, and hence, induce the moral hazard problem. ” This difference between Democrats and Republicans will have implications for testing the link between altruism and voting, as I show below. One additional modification of the altruism measure is needed to test the basic hypothesis. Being an altruistic individual, it is still not rational to vote if one does not perceive a difference between the parties or candidates running for office.
Even then, they require additional ad hoc extensions that is, that the more educated are either more civic minded or more prone to expressive voting. Thus, they are not parsimonious in terms of their explanations of the facts of voting turnout. Neither of the consumption explanations can explain strategic voting. We observe individuals changing their vote when their most preferred candidate has little or no chance of winning. Hence, the probability of being decisive (the > p = term) drives the shift in voting preferences.
9 Some tests of the consumption theories have been undertaken. The tests of civic duty have been mixed at best. In a survey analysis of Canadian voters, it was found that over half said that civic duty was the reason they voted (Blais and Young, 1995). By contrast, a study of the US voters indicated that civic duty can only explain about 5 percent of the turnout (Rosenstone and Hansen, 1993). Campbell (2006) finds that in small communities civic duty produces high turnout rates. But, social pressure is required to enforce the norm of civic duty.
Altruism and Self-Interest in Democracies: Individual Participation in Government by R. Jankowski