By Béla Tomka
A Social historical past of Twentieth-Century Europe bargains a scientific review on significant features of social existence, together with inhabitants, family members and families, social inequalities and mobility, the welfare country, paintings, intake and relaxation, social cleavages in politics, urbanization in addition to schooling, faith and tradition. It additionally addresses significant debates and diverging interpretations of ancient and social examine in regards to the historical past of eu societies some time past 100 years.
Organized in ten thematic chapters, this publication takes an interdisciplinary technique, utilizing the equipment and result of not just historical past, but additionally sociology, demography, economics and political technology. Béla Tomka provides either the variety and the commonalities of eu societies taking a look not only to Western eu international locations, yet jap, crucial and Southern ecu international locations in addition. an ideal creation for all scholars of eu historical past.
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Extra info for A Social History of Twentieth-Century Europe
In the early decades of the century, the rapid decline of fertility was turned hectic by the ﬂuctuations due to the First World War, the huge setbacks during, and the transitory rises after, the war. 22 Right after the Second World War, a short period of fertility rise can be observed, caused by family reunions and the rising number of marriages, then a period of lower fertility succeeded in the late 1940s and early 1950s in several countries. The following ‘baby boom’ similarly aﬀected all Western European countries.
9 All in all, the slowest population growth between 1920 and the end of the century was produced by Austria (27%) and Hungary (28%). Modest growth can be observed in Poland, Ireland, Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom as well, although the causes behind this development diﬀer from country to country. In contrast, the growth rate of the Netherlands and especially Albania was remarkable. 1). The demographic transition: model and criticism The population growth of Europe in the nineteenth and in a great part of the twentieth century was based on a process known as the demographic transition.
When examining fertility, we ﬁnd remarkable diﬀerences in the internal dynamics of the major regions throughout the twentieth century. The gaps between the fertility levels of Western European countries widened considerably in the interwar period, thus the swift convergence of the two decades after the Second Population 21 World War could only counterbalance this development. The 1960s and 1970s again saw increasing diﬀerences in fertility rates; then came the rapid tendency of uniﬁcation in the 1980s regarding both the crude birth rate and the total fertility rate.
A Social History of Twentieth-Century Europe by Béla Tomka