By Trask, Robert Lawrence
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Additional resources for A dictionary of phonetics and phonology
The ability of an individual to distinguish sounds with slightly different physical properties; in phonetics, particularly the ability to distinguish speech sounds or words. auditory feedback /'fi:dbrek/ n. The phenomenon in which a speaker hears her/his own speech via the conduction of sound both through the air and through the bones of the head. Such feedback is important in monitoring and controlling speech; loss of feedback, as in severe deafness, may result in abnormal speech. Cf. kinaesthetic feedback and see delayed auditory feedback.
The notation uses a Greek letter (a feature coefficient) as a variable ranging over the values + and -; the variable must of course assume a single value on anyone reading of the resulting rule schema. For example, the soft mutation of Welsh may be broadly described by the following two rules: [-cont, -nas, -voi] ~ [+voi, -cont] (a voiceless plosive becomes voiced), and ~ [-cont, -nas, +voi] [+voi, +cont] (a voiced plosive becomes a fricative). These may be conflated by means of the alpha notation: [-cont, -nas, a voi] ~ [+voi, a cont] Similarly, the following schema states that a word-final nasal is syllabic if it follows a non-syllabic segment but non-syllabic otherWIse: [+nas] ~ [a syll] I [~ syll] _ # When additional such variables are required, succeeding letters of the Greek alphabet are used.
Articulatory apraxia articulatory complexity Ikam'pleksIti/ n. A proposed parameter for classifying consonant articulations in terms of departures from a default mode of production; consonants are classified as basic, elaborated or complex segments. Lindblom and Maddieson (19,88). articulatory feature n. A distinctive feature which is related primarily to some aspect of the posture of the vocal organs during the articulation of a segment, and not to the acoustic qualities of the sound produced.
A dictionary of phonetics and phonology by Trask, Robert Lawrence